MILLENIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS (MDGs) PROGRESS IN MALDIVES
 
Goals and Targets Indicators Baseline 1990 Data Year
         
GOAL 1: ERADICATE EXTREME POVERTY AND HUNGER        
Target 1.A: Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people whose income is less than one dollar a day 1.1     Proportion of population below $1 (PPP) per day 24 1 2004
   Proportion of population below MRF 7.5 per day 49 3 2004
   Proportion of population below MRF 10 per day 59 8 2004
   Proportion of population below MRF 15 per day 74 21 2004
1.2     Poverty gap ratio    
MRF 7.5 per day NA 1 2004
MRF 10 per day NA 2 2004
MRF 15 per day NA 6 2004
1.3     Share of poorest quintile in national consumption   6 2004
Target 1.B: Achieve full and productive employment and decent work for all, including women and young people 1.4     Growth rate of GDP per person employed   14.6 2006
1.5     Employment-to-population ratio 44 54 2006
1.7     Proportion of own-account and contributing family workers in total employment    
Own - account workers   16 2006
Contributing family workers   13 2006
Target 1.C: Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people who suffer from hunger 1.8     Prevalence of underweight children under-five years of age NA 31 2004
         
GOAL 2: ACHIEVE UNIVERSAL PRIMARY EDUCATION
Target 2.A: Ensure that, by 2015, children everywhere, boys and girls alike, will be able to complete a full course of primary schooling 2.1     Net enrolment ratio in primary education 90 95 2009
2.2     Proportion of pupils starting grade 1 who reach last grade of primary 17 78 2006
2.3     Literacy rate of 15-24 year-olds, women and men 53 99.3 2006
  Literacy rate of 15-24 year-olds, women 51 99.4 2006
 Literacy rate of 15-24 year-olds, men 56 99.2 2006
         
GOAL 3: PROMOTE GENDER EQUALITY AND EMPOWER WOMEN
Target 3.A: Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education, preferably by 2005, and in all levels of education no later than 2015 3.1     Ratios of girls to boys in primary, secondary and tertiary education  
Primary education NA 0.85 2009
Secondary education NA 1.07 2009
Tertiary education NA 1.13 2006
3.2     Share of women in wage employment in the non-agricultural sector 25 38 2006
3.3     Proportion of seats held by women in national parliament 4 6.5 2010
         
GOAL 4: REDUCE CHILD MORTALITY
Target 4.A: Reduce by two-thirds, between 1990 and 2015, the under-five mortality rate 4.1     Under-five mortality rate / 1,000 live births 48 12 2009
4.2     Infant mortality rate / 1,000 live births 34 11 2009
4.3     Proportion of 1 year-old children immunised against measles NA 98 2009
         
GOAL 5: IMPROVE MATERNAL HEALTH
Target 5.A: Reduce by three quarters, between 1990 and 2015, the maternal mortality ratio 5.1     Maternal mortality ratio / 100,000 live births 259 81 2009
5.2     Proportion of births attended by skilled health personnel NA 98 2008
Target 5.B: Achieve, by 2015, universal access to reproductive health 5.3     Contraceptive prevalence rate NA 35 2009
5.4     Adolescent birth rate NA 0.93 2008
5.5     Antenatal care coverage (at least one visit and at least four visits)  
at least one visit NA 7 2009
at least four visits NA 85 2009
5.6     Unmet need for family planning NA 28 2009
         
GOAL 6: COMBAT HIV / AIDS, MALARIA AND OTHER DISEASES
Target 6.A: Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS 6.1     HIV prevalence among population aged 15-24 years NA <0.01 2009
6.2     Condom use at last high-risk sex NA <20 Draft BBS 2008
6.3     Proportion of population aged 15-24 years with comprehensive correct knowledge of HIV/AIDS NA 97 2004
Target 6.B: Achieve, by 2010, universal access to treatment for HIV/AIDS for all those who need it 6.5     Proportion of population with advanced HIV infection with access to antiretroviral drugs NA 37.5 2009
Target 6.C: Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the incidence of malaria and other major diseases 6.6     Incidence and death rates associated with malaria 0 0 2008
6.9     Incidence, prevalence and death rates associated with tuberculosis    
Death rate from TB / 1,000 population 15.95 0.03 2008
Sputum smear positive-incidence rate / 1,000 population   0.19 2008
Sputum smear negetive-incidence rate / 1,000 population   0.19 2008
Sputum smear positive-prevalence rate / 1,000 population   0.09 2008
Sputum smear negetive-prevalence rate / 1,000 population   0.11 2008
6.10  Proportion of tuberculosis cases detected and cured under directly observed treatment short course 156.84    
Detected NA 92  
cured rate NA 91 2006
         
GOAL 7: ENSURE ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY
Target 7.A: Integrate the principles of sustainable development into country policies and programmes and reverse the loss of environmental resources 7.2     CO2 emissions, total, per capita and per $1 GDP (PPP)  
     CO2 emissions / 1,000 metric ton NA 1,034 2009
     CO2 emissions per capita NA 3.2 2009
     total $1 GDP (PPP) NA 0.65
2005
7.3     Consumption of ozone-depleting substances  
CFC NA 4.6 1997
Target 7.B: Reduce biodiversity loss, achieving, by 2010, a significant reduction in the rate of loss 7.6     Proportion of terrestrial and marine areas protected   3 1995 - 2009
Target 7.C: Halve, by 2015, the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation 7.8     Proportion of population using an improved drinking water source 56 *  
Including rain water NA 94.8 * 2006
Excluding rain water NA 26.1 * 2006
7.9     Proportion of population using an improved sanitation facility 41 * 94 * 2006
         
GOAL 8: DEVELOP A GLOBAL PARTNERSHIP FOR DEVELOPMENT
Target 8.B: Address the special needs of the least developed countries 8.5     ODA received in small island developing States as a proportion of their gross national incomes 10.76 3.77 2009
Target 8.D: Deal comprehensively with the debt problems of developing countries through national and international measures in order to make debt sustainable in the long term Debt sustainability      
8.12  Debt service as a percentage of exports of goods and services 4 6.29 2009
Target 8.F: In cooperation with the private sector, make available the benefits of new technologies, especially information and communications 8.14  Telephone lines per 100 population NA 15.6 2009
8.15  Cellular subscribers per 100 population NA 146 2009
8.16  Internet users per 100 population NA 28 2009
* Census figures are calculated for Households and not for population / For MMR given the data available in 1990, the original baseline year, a baseline was set at 500 per 100,000 live births; hence the official 2015 target of 125. However, the 2007 MDG report noted that the baseline should be set from 1997, when more reliable data became available and the figure was 259
Poverty and Social Statistics Unit, Statistics Division, Department of National Planning, Ministry of Finance and Treasury Ghazee Building, 20125 Male' , Republic of Maldives
       
   
The Millennium Development Goals: an outlook on the progression of Maldives
The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) represent a global commitment established at the world summits of the 1990s (The United Nations Millennium Declaration). Responding to the world's main development challenges and to the calls of civil society, the MDGs promote poverty reduction, education, maternal health, gender equality, and aim at combating child mortality, AIDS and other diseases.

Eight broad goals were developed to realize the objectives set for the year 2015 in the Declaration. And a number of indicators were defined to measure the progress.

Goal 1: Maldives have achieved the goal of eradicating extreme poverty and hunger in the country in relation to the international poverty line used for assessing progress towards poverty reduction is $ 1 (PPP).

Goal 2: Maldives has also achieved the goal of achieving universal primary education. Net enrolment ratio for primary level education is at 95% in 2009.

Goal 3: There is gender parity at primary level with net enrolment rate of 94.7 % for males and 95.3% for females in 2009. However for lower secondary level female net enrolment is higher at 81.4% than for males at 73.6% and for higher secondary this level is higher for boys with 13.1% than girls with 14.8% net enrolment rate. The share of women in the labour force is 37% compared to 20% in 1990 (Census 2006). The percentage share of seats held by women in national parliament in 1990 was 4% which increased to 12% in 2005 and again dropped to 6.5% as of February 2009.

Goal 4: Goal to reduce child mortality was achieved in 2005. Under-five mortality was 48 per 1,000 live births in 1990 and it came down to 12 per 1,000 live births in 2009. Infant mortality rate was at 34 per 1,000 live births in 1990 and came down to 11 per 1,000 live births in 2009. Proportion of children immunised against measles is at 98% in 2009.

Goal 5: The reported Maternal Mortality Rate (MMR) for 1990 was 2 per 1,000 live births and this was at 0.5 per 1,000 live births in 2007. This shows that the Goal for improving maternal mortality rate has been achieved already.

Goal 6: The Maldives has a very low prevalence rate of HIV/AIDS. 14 Maldivian cases have been reported after the screening was initiated in 1991 of which 3 are currently living (February 2009). Malaria has been eradicated from the country and the prevalence of TB is very low.

Goal 7: Maldives is among the most vulnerable to climate change. The Maldives has maintained a very good track record in ensuring environmental sustainability. In 1990, more than 79 % of the households used firewood for cooking, while this decreased to 13.6 % in 2006. Access to improved water sources has increased tremendously when rain water was taken as an improved water source however, this is low when rain water was excluded. Two third of the population still does not have access to improved sanitation facilities In the Maldives there are no slums and no slum dwellers, however 798 people (June 2010) out of about 7000 tsunami affected people are still living in temporary shelters.

Goal 8: Official Development Assistance (ODA) volumes received in terms of actual disbursements for 2006 was at 62.8 million US$ and 155.17 million US$ as of 2009 budget. Debt service ratio for 2006 is at 4.12 %, this was at 6.29% as of 2009 budget. The World Bank recommendation debt service ratio for less indebted countries is less than 15%

Five out of eight MDG areas are on track or have been achieved ahead of time. However disturbing gaps remain. Increasing income inequality and increasingly recognized chills poverty and disparities, persistent issues around malnutrition of children, lack of adequate affordable housing, high youth unemployment, challenges to the environment, water and sanitation, issues around\d child and youth exposure to violence, abuse and neglect including an explosion in drug abuse and sexual violence, and the increasing repression of women and girl children. These trends are undermining the excellent MDG progress made in the county.

Moreover, even when the MDGs are on track at aggregate level, there is considerable unevenness and income and social disparities in the country. The challenge is to reach MDGs with equity for every citizen.